Technical Transactions iss. 11. Environmental Engineering iss. 1-Ś

Technical Transactions iss. 11. Environmental Engineering iss. 1-Ś

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Collection items (16)


Ultrafiltration membranes made of: polyaniline, ionic liquid and cellulose

Wilk, Barbara
Article
2016
The study determined the method of obtaining UF membranes from cellulose, polyaniline and ionic liquid as the gelling agent. The impact of the applied coagulation agent and the conducting polymer (polyaniline) on the transport and separation properties of the obtained membranes was examined.

Imaging of aquatic organisms using variable-pressure SEM

Wassilkowska, Anna, Czaplicka, Anna, Polus, Michał
Article
2016
Examples of the use of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to study organic matter in variable vacuum (VP) were presented. The organisms growing in water (e.g. Chironomidae), carried by water/wastewater (e.g. Protozoa, Amoebozoa) or inhabiting reservoirs (e.g. Algae), were investigated. The results indicate a good agreement between the predictions in source literature and the actual imaging quality in our VP-SEM experiments.

Occurrence of antidepressants – from wastewater to drinking water

Rezka, Piotr, Balcerzak, Wojciech
Article
2016
The article’s subject is the presence of antidepressants in the wastewater and aquatic environment. The basic characteristics of selected antidepressants were presented. A review of the literature on the occurrence of these compounds in sewage influents and effluents, surface waters and sludge was made. As a general rule, drinking water should be free of any organic, especially pharmaceutical, contaminants. But according to data, the presence of antidepressants in source water for water purification plants poses a threat to their penetration to the water supply system and, eventually, to consumers of water intended for human consumption.

Occurrence of antibiotics in the environment

Rezka, Piotr, Balcerzak, Wojciech
Article
2016
Antibiotics are the most commonly used group of pharmaceuticals used in human and animal treatment. The main sources are hospital and household sewage and waste from animal production. The paper is a review of the literature confirming the prevalence of antibiotics in wastewater influents and effluents, natural waters, sludge and sediments. Studies conducted around the world confirm that there is a risk of antibiotic accumulation in soil and their infiltration to drinking water despite advanced methods of water purification. The concentrations of several substances found in surface water samples exceed the levels considered as safe for the studied aquatic organisms several hundred times, which indicates a real threat to their lives.

Analysis of a wedge-wire screen’s work

Pawłowska-Salach, Agata, Zielina, Michał, Polok-Kowalska, Aleksandra
Article
2016
The article presents the results of numerical calculations performed in a computer software. The simulations concern water flow through an intake screen. This kind of screen can be used in surface water intakes. Thanks to the small inlet velocities and a small mesh size, the screen does not pose a threat to ichthyofauna.

Numerical modelling of coupled heat and water transport on embankment dam in Kozlowa Gora

Opaliński, Paweł, Radzicki, Krzysztof, Bonelli, Stephane
Article
2016
The paper discusses the use of the thermo-hydraulic numerical model to verify the hypothesis of subsoil seepage and erosion development in a section of the Kozłówa Góra dam. This dam is provided with an innovative and advanced system for quasi-3D thermal monitoring of seepage and erosion, which was used for temperature measurements. The herein reported analysis of the measurements showed high applicability of the thermal monitoring method in determining the severity of erosion and seepage processes using numerical modelling.

Energy efficiency improvement of the refrigeration cycle using an internal heat exchanger

Müller, Jarosław
Article
2016
A refrigeration cycle modified using an Internal Heat Exchanger is presented. For different refrigerants, the net effect of using an IHX is either positive or negative due to refrigerant properties and working conditions. Wet refrigerant vapor at the inlet of IHX improves the cycle in various aspects. The evaporator performance is much better when not superheating the vapor. A “pure” effect of subcooling the refrigerant liquid at the inlet of the expansion valve results in an increased specific heat of evaporation. For zeotropic mixtures, increased subcooling results in lowering the evaporating temperature without lowering the pressure in the evaporator. The EER value can be improved for some refrigerants and for specific working conditions. Theoretical and experimental evaluations of this concept are presented. Commonly used refrigerants were evaluated theoretically and tested in a 10 kW (cooling capacity) test rig. R22 and R407C were analyzed.

Experimental research on the impact of different hardness waters on their contamination by protective cement mortar linings after pipe renovation

Młyńska, Anna, Zielina, Michał
Article
2016
The paper presents laboratory experiments on the influence of different hardness water samples collected from the municipal water supply system on the intensification of leaching pollutants from the internal cement mortar pipe lining to drinking water. The paper presents the analysis of water quality indices, such as pH, aluminum and selected heavy metals concentrations after contacting with cement coatings.

Utilization of animal blood plasma as example of using cleaner technologies methodology

Makara, Agnieszka, Kowalski, Zygmunt, Fela, Katarzyna, Generowicz, Agnieszka
Article
2016
Dried animal blood plasma, which is offered to the market as a feed product, should meet appropriate standards of quality and epidemiological safety. That is why blood drawing, its transportation, storage and processing must be performed with absolute observance of the principles of hygiene and sanitation. The paper discusses the possibilities of application of techniques used in the food industry for the pretreatment of animal blood plasma to ensure a high quality of the final product. Both the proper treatment of this by-product from the animal’s production as well as its recycling and re-use as a feed or food additives are examples of practical use of cleaner production methods.

Humic substances as by-product precursors generated during oxidation and disinfection – review of the literature

Łomińska, Dominika
Article
2016
Humic substances (HS), including soluble fulvic acids (FA), are commonly occurring pollutants, particularly in surface waters. HS were considered as substances, which are harmless for humans until now. They were mainly removed from the water because of turbidity, color and as a source of odor. HS in the process oxidation and disinfection are precursors of carcinogenic and mutagenic substances. Because of this, an analysis has been conducted, discussing their construction, properties and methods used of their disposal.