Technical Transactions iss. 14. Mechanics iss. 4-M

Technical Transactions iss. 14. Mechanics iss. 4-M

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Collection items (20)


Management of packaging waste

Ingaldi, Manuela
Article
2016
Most of the products available on the market are sold together with different types of packaging. Information about the product, manufacturers etc., is placed on these packages but their main function is to protect the product during transport. After the product is removed, the packaging becomes waste which, according to Polish law, should be managed in an appropriate way. Recycling and recovery of the material are the most important issues. Basic statistics on recycling of packaging waste showed that paper, cardboard and aluminum packaging are recycled to the greatest extent in Poland. In the article, definitions of packaging and packaging waste according to Polish law are presented, together with legal acts on waste management. The main statistics connected with the management of packaging waste are also presented.

Efficient surfaces for boiling heat transfer enhancement

Radek, Norbert, Orman, Łukasz J., Kapjor, Andrej, Sladek, Augustín
Article
2016
The paper discusses the use of efficient surfaces for heat transfer enhancement during a nucleate boiling heat transfer. Distilled water under ambient pressure was the working fluid in the presented experiment. The application of a brass mesh of 0.63 mm aperture and 0.20 mm wire diameter on the surface of a copper heater led to considerable improvement in the value of heat flux at low temperature differences of a few Kelvin, where the enhancement ratio exceeded 2. Such modified surfaces could be used in the design of more efficient heat exchangers e.g. in refrigeration systems.


Numerical analysis of bolts loading in slewing bearing

Krynke, Marek
Article
2016
This article analyzes screw connection of slewing bearings to various structures of support elements. The susceptibility of support elements to the load distribution in particular bearing screws was examined by means of the Finite Element Method. The load values of screws and their distribution around the perimeter of the combined bearing rings were also specified.

Application of ASTM standards in quantitative microstructure evaluation

Wojnar, Leszek
Article
2016
Quantitative microstructure characterization is currently required in R&D as well as in routine quality control of materials and products. Every step: preparation of the laboratory and specimens, measurements and interpretation of the results etc. can be a source of serious errors. Application of the ASTM guidelines can minimize these problems and improve international circulation of the results. The paper characterizes selected ASTM standards devoted to laboratory practice and analyses the complexity of microstructural materials characterization.

Variational iteration technique for solving higher order boundary value problem with additional boundary condition

Filipowska, Renata
Article
2016
This paper treats a variational iteration technique, which is based on variational iteration method, for solving linear and non – linear two – point boundary value problems in the form of a fourth – order differential equation and five boundary conditions. The solution of this problem is possible only when the considered equation includes an unknown parameter. The presented method has been illustrated with a numerical example.

Cleaner production strategy as possibility of waste reduction in wood sawing

Sygut, Piotr
Article
2016
Cleaner production is a management strategy aimed at reducing the losses associated with waste of energy and raw materials which focuses on waste prevention and not the way of its utilization. Cleaner Production can also reduce company’s costs incurred during the processes taking place within the organization. In the case of companies involved in wood processing (sawmills, carpenters, etc.)a lot of waste in the form of sawdust, shavings or edgings is created. These are materials that can be used as an alternative fuel for firing furnaces and boilers. Good sales management of this type of waste after production allows companies to obtain additional income and minimize environmental risks.

Comparative study of an additional oxidizer charge effect on selected operational characteristics of a solid-fuel rocket engine

Pietraszek, Mariusz, Klemba, Tomasz, Lubieniecka, Joanna, Łukasiewicz, Jerzy, Pietraszek, Jacek
Article
2016
This paper describes a part of research related to the elimination of adverse phenomenon involving the occurrence of a negative oxygen balance of combustion products of missile engines during their firing from aircrafts. It also presents the results of comparative tests of rocket engines equipped with an additional oxidizer charge.

The dominant factor detection in the Shainin’s approach

Pietraszek, Jacek, Krawczyk, Mariusz, Sobczyk, Andrzej, Skrzypczak-Pietraszek, Ewa
Article
2016
Shainin’s approach is a specific sequential heuristic aimed at finding and ranking the most important factors which impact the investigated process. The sequential aspect of the approach is simultaneously its strongest and weakest side, because just after detection of the most important factor, the further analysis is stopped without any additional cost. However, such a detection may take place at the end of the whole sequence. This paper tries to answer the question if the dominant factor may be hidden by interactions with other factors.

Study of the selected characteristic of artificial pneumatic muscles

Dwornicka, Renata, Wesół, Jacek
Article
2016
McKibben pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) allow for a proper representation of static and dynamic movement characteristics of biomechanical systems. These actuators have features similar to physiological muscles such as ability to generate high value of force in short time and elastic and damping properties. McKibben muscles have a nonlinear character – the value of a generated force depends not only on the pressure but also on the stroke. In the presented paper, the authors exemplify basic traits of these actuators and present drawn characteristics of a force to stroke at a constant pressure.