Abstract:For several thousand years, cities in different scales – small and big – have been created and built by various civilizations on our planet. Beside the realized ones, drawn cities – constructed in the imagination of designers and artists, poets and writers – have sprung up. Nonexistent cities, which have never been created and will never be created, carry some emotional values which are important to contemporary man. Drawn “paper” architecture is not just an art in itself and for itself – it makes a testing ground and a research field for the development of new forms, for the creation of new worlds. Unhampered by the conditions of living “here and now”, it facilitates a freer flow of thoughts, the realization of dreams, the implementation of a creator’s inner world.
Abstract:The role of architect in city-making has been the theme of unsolved debates in urbanism. Committed as performers and recipients of a holistic knowledge, architects-urbanists keep acting, still today, in-between idealism and pragmatism. The city, being frequently defined as a text, becomes the molten object where projects brought to materiality are able to build an intangible narrative. The paper presents the ongoing research 6by6, a compared analysis of cities where the apparent contradiction between idealism and practice is solved. Acknowledged American and European cities are analysed as a mean to illustrate the connections between the most extreme city-narrative – architectural manifestos ‒ with the most tangible material commitment – actual and implemented urban projects. This article announces them and reports on the manifestoes they are the cores of.
Abstract:This paper concerns directions for the development of housing architecture and housing environment in the city of the future. The author bases the presented development forecasts upon an analysis of tendencies in the formation of housing architecture and housing environment within the first thirteen years of the twenty-first century in Europe taking the aspect of time, threats and Earth protection into consideration. The presented residential complexes located at the centre of Lyon (La Confluence) and in Graz (Messequartier) reveal a new approach to the issues of shaping places of residence, recreation and work in the man-surroundings and architecture-nature relations. The author poses a thesis that the future of housing architecture and housing environment will depend on the pace and degree of the economic development of the societies of the future as well as the political will of the world’s leading nations. The housing architecture of the future will be intelligent, sustainable, harmonized with the surroundings and nature. It will allow for social, economic, energy-saving and ecological objectives. There will be further development of new forms of residence with unknown composition and aesthetics in the intelligent and sustainable urban structures of the smart city of the future.
Abstract:Residential complexes make the prevailing part of urban structures determining their expansion and spatial form. In certain historical periods, the intermingling of various functions identified housing zones with the area of a city. Even at that time, however, we dealt with diverse spatial forms – those organized rigorously and totally free alike. As a result of the development of civilization and cities, the appearance of new functions as well as the subjectivity and independence of the housing function, the form of individual residential complexes became the testing ground for search and experimentation. Significant questions arise here: To what extent are forms and their acceptability related to civilization and technological changes as well as the altered perception of the surroundings which follows them? What impact will these processes have on the structure of the contemporary and future city?
Abstract:Global urbanisation processes do not only account for quantitative growth, but also bring about qualitative transformations of our urban environments. They lead to the formation of new typologies of settlement forms. Besides the monocentric metropolises and mega-cities, we observe an increasing number of large-scale urban forms that grow together out of former single cities merging into one interconnected city-region. In many respects, Frankfurt Rhine-Main demonstrates the elements of a polycentric city-region, characterised by a network of large, medium-sized and minor centres that build up a system of decentralised centralisation. Challenges for sustainable development include the creation of integrated mobility systems, a nexus of settlement form and public transport, compact multi-functional nodes, connectivity of regional open spaces and the conception of a common vision for the future.
Abstract:The expression “future city” is used to be understand semantically as “ideal city”. The tendencies dominating recently in urbanization of Polish cities, like: urban sprawl, deindustrialization of the country, spatial chaos in urbanized areas and the symptoms of city shrinking, awoke serious concerns about the future of Polish cities, what makes thinking about the future city as the ideal one more difficult. It seems of great importance to undertake strategies of recovery and rescue of the contemporary cities already today, in order to make them ideal for the future.
Abstract:In the era of suburbanization, urban development is carried out in functional urban areas. Regardless of the intentions of planners, an increased role of flow in the modern economy determines the growing importance of the spatial processes of metropolization, which concern both the relationships between large cities and the relations within the cities’ functional areas. Consequently, the analyses, recommendations and instruments to support urban development should address the spatial scale of functional areas (metropolitan), and not merely the core cities. In view of the observed processes of civilization, the contemporary challenges for urban policy are associated with increasing density and compactness of urban development and with the reduction of relative distances within metropolitan areas. In view of the observed processes of civilization, the contemporary challenges for urban policy are associated with increasing density and compactness of urban development and with the reduction of relative distances within metropolitan areas. The competitive position of cities depends, to an increasing extent, on the social potential (human and social capital) and economic development of the entire functional urban area. This is the most important and most difficult challenge for both planners and the governing bodies of the cities of the future.
Abstract:The article attempts to define how the film picture becomes a medium to record urban space. The cine-camera showing urban landmarks resulting from the composition allows to note impressions, sensations in real time. Over time, the captured moment becomes a historical record illustrating the character of the city, place or point in space. In the film picture, dynamic rather than stable, urban space is subject to change. Can we still say nowadays that the film picture and the modern city are made for each other?
Abstract:How do we understand the life of the city, its time and its space? What requirements do we impose on the space we live in? What does the future mean to us? Today, answers to these questions are marked with a reflection upon the dynamic and scope of changes which affect us and our cities. What is and should remain the same; what changes or should change? Instead of presenting answers and visions, we ought to ask a number of questions which will define probable directions for the evolution of the form of the city. Is Kazimierz Wejchert’s spatial city – a kind of spatial, pedestrian continuum – the answer?
Abstract:In previous article under the same title  it was stated that nowadays two parallel processes are observed: the urbanization of wars and the militarization of cities. Future wars will be waged in cities; civilians and urban infrastructure will become the main assets of war. Rich cities of the North will be the target of terrorist attacks, whilst overcrowded and fallen cities of the South will be the main theatre of military operations. In the second part, relations between war and urban science, urbanization and suburbanization will be discussed. The example of Israel will show that the process of urbanization, apart from its traditional defense role, can develop into an offensive role – becoming a weapon of territorial conquest and a way to control a hostile population.