Abstract:This article describes the main properties of an iterative method of simple knowledge structure creation. The method is based on an inductive learning scheme. The knowledge structure is built automatically and takes the form of a simplified ontology. Knowledge transformation plays a key role in the process of creating the knowledge structure. In order to regular describe many kinds of these transformations the article provides the relevant theoretical background. The task of finding the proper ontology (knowledge structure) is extremely complex. This paper highlights the necessity to investigate efficient search methods; additionally, the work draws attention to the advantages that arise from building the knowledge structure at the minimal possible size. The paper points to possible areas of the method application, especially in connection with problems of the automatic understanding of images and websites.
Abstract:In the present article, we focus on the changing face of the revitalised parts of the city of Liverpool. We present the successful, consistent implementation of a comprehensive vision for the renewal of the city’s port area – neglected and dangerous still at the end of the last century. We indicate the importance of determining the elements of the space that crystallise the urban layout of the city, and skilfully applying those in future concepts. We refer to the main issues related to the renewal process, including the economic and social aspects of the city, as well as to the use of art in the humanisation of the place and the importance of social participation in the approval of design solutions.
Abstract:This papers concerns measurements of wind pressure distributions on the roofs and side walls of tent hall models. Four tent halls of different shapes and constructions were investigated in the boundary layer wind tunnel at Cracow University of Technology, Poland. On the basis of these measurements, different schemes of wind pressure coefficient distributions for these structures were determined, including mean and extreme values of the coefficients. The obtained results, their analyses and comparisons are of great importance from a structural design point of view for such types of structures.
Gaska, Krzysztof, Generowicz, Agnieszka, Ciuła, Józef
Abstract:The article presents the conception of an intelligent system for monitoring and managing the municipal waste disposal in metropolises. Applying advanced IT solutions using intelligent computational techniques enables the passage from the passive position of selfgovernment units (JST) in managing the waste disposal to the active position, especially in decision making during the problem solving of planning systems associated with the organisation management of the complex infrastructure of the waste disposal. The aim of using ICT systems is an increase in the reliability of the economy of systemic waste, monitoring in real time, the stabilization of the work of the system and the optimization of logistic and technological processes in the context of the raw material, energy application and simultaneously limiting the influence on all components of the environment.
Abstract:The article presents deliberations about a small city as a desirable living environment of a multi-layered character focusing on sociological issues that take into account the lifestyle of the residents and their preferences. Environmental studies, which reflected the expectations of the residents regarding their living environment, proved to be very important for the matter of the paper. Another issue related to small cities is the architecture responsible for the vitality of the place, its character and intimacy. It often determines the attractiveness of the centre, its history and culture. The considerations provided by the authors were supported by urban analyses, interviews, literature studies and own observations regarding selected urban centres located in the Podkarpackie Voivodeship.
Abstract:The paper presents selected causes of problems related to the widely understood phenomenon of secondary contamination of drinking tap water caused by corrosion. The legal aspects, related to the formal responsibility for water quality in water supply systems: cold water and hot water, according to the way it is prepared, have been analysed. The main causes of the deterioration of water quality in water supply systems were characterized by the criteria for assessment of the corrosivity and aggressiveness of the water. Proposals for actions which should be undertaken to prevent secondary water contamination in water supply systems have been drawn up.
Abstract:The paper presents a project of a rectification column working periodically for the production of ethyl alcohol. The project contains an assumption of a steady concentration of the distillate. Thee range of change in the reflux from 1.7 to 13 required to obtain that concentration was calculated. With 50 litres of feed containing 9 mol % ethanol, about 10 litres of distillate was obtained, which has 70 mol % ethanol. Ceramic Raschig rings with a diameter of 15 mm, which, in a column, occupy a height of 0.5 m, were used. The height of the entire column was 0.67 m.
Abstract:Problems with parking individual cars, particularly in urban areas, were already experienced by the inhabitants of developed countries in the interwar period. These problems continue to appear, as the number of cars increases and there are fewer and fewer parking spaces. Therefore, solutions are sought after to ensure the largest possible number of parking spaces with the smallest occupied area, especially in large agglomerations of highly developed countries. The article presents one of the possible solutions – rotary car parks (The Rotary Automated Car Parking System; RACPS). The research results reffered to in the article are the effect of works conducted at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of the Cracow University of Technology in the field of modelling and optimisation of a rotary car park [5, 6, 8].