Abstract:Article draws attention to the evolution of museums from the times of the Antiquity to the present day. The paper recalls that according to researches by historians of architecture that the ancient Museion served as a particular scientific, scholarly and intellectual centre. The modern concept of a museum has reduced these functions, insisting on protection and presentation of the collections. Only as late as at the end of the century a new philosophy − new museology and the concept of Ecomuseum were introduced as a new form of use and presentation of heritage in the transition process taking place in a specific area in the landscape and in the environment taking into account man and his culture as the fundamental factors for sustainable development.
Abstract:In this article the Author makes an attempt at characterizing the notion of urbanity of a city and its significance for maintaining, revitalizing and shaping – today and in the future – of an urban spatial structure. He states that the characteristic feature of a developed area exhibiting an urban character is the occurrence of public spaces – places favouring public (social) use, offering an attractive functional programme, attracting users. Places which stand out in the area of the city thanks to the characteristic properties of their forms, creating easily identifiable sequences of spaces in the city, exhibiting a desirable human scale of development and urban interiors formed by it. Places exhibiting distinct identity features, thanks to maintaining, adopting or creating contemporary interpretation of the tradition of the place and the historic heritage of the material culture. Places which stand out with their attractive, diversified forms of architecture, the richness of shapes, details, colours, picturesqueness of the atmosphere created by them.
Abstract:After roughly four years of restoration works, the Majorat House of the Princes von und zu Liechtenstein in Vienna was reopened on 9 April 2013. The staterooms of the Liechtenstein City Palace will in future also be accessible to the public. Alongside the staterooms, the new use includes the LGT Bank premises and a three-storey art depot that was lowered below the inner courtyard during the conversion work; in addition, there are also rooms that are available to the Princely family during their stays in Vienna. Not only is the restoration of significance from a cultural policy point of view, it is also of considerable importance for monument conservation in Europe. It is the largest completed restoration in the City of Vienna to apply scientific monument-conservation principles, and is beyond doubt already to be regarded as the standard for the restoration of similar buildings in Europe. The restoration has been honoured not only by the City of Vienna; the conservation project related to the Liechtenstein City Palace also received a special mention by the EU in the form of the Europa Nostra (the voice of Cultural Heritage in Europe) in 2014 and the German Light Design Award 2014 in the museums category.
Abstract:New needs in society ask for new approaches and new criteria in cultural heritage. Still, they brought new solutions which are not always consistent with those of Venice Charter (1964) or Krakow Charter 2000. We inherited everything around us, including the landscape and all semantics related with that environment. In the eternal and universal dilemma between progression or conservation, conservation should prevail, as we are conservators; yet sometimes progression has to be part of it if we can guarantee by this way the rescue and survival of the monument or heritage. The article aims at presenting the answers for the challenges of today’s conservation of cultural heritage, in the modified and diversified society- both linguistic and regarding architectural practice. Thus the author proposes the approach marked by sustainability and modesty and also gives three definitions and three categories of heritage (of historic or artistic value), allowing for a variegated approach – in the decreasing scale of restraints concerning change or transformation.
Abstract:The paper summarizes Restoration in Spain from 1840 approximately, describing the principle ideas and opinions but putting the focus on the difference between those who studies and those who works, who have the responsibility of the real solutions. “Restauro Stilístico” is practiced during a first period towards the change into “Restauro Moderno”. The relevance of using new materials and the importance given to the new technology in restoration are the main points, to finally look for methods as well as criteria.
Abstract:To be able to appreciate and understand the significance and the quality, often ignored, of the existing heritage − from the single monument to the urban fabric and all the way up to the territory; all themes which are embedded in the concept of identity of their own landscape − the exact geometrical documentation of the state of the object is not sufficient (even if visually significant); an additional step in comprehension is required, backed by surveys and filtered with the appropriate interpretation and comparison keys about the observed organism, looking further beyond its image. Communicating the knowledge of architecture and manmade contexts (appropriate and multidisciplinary investigation methods with up-to-date technology, integrated surveys and scientific experience of the architectural heritage at all scales, the memory of the motivations and planning, philosophical and Social premises, both material and immaterial) is the realm of connoisseurs, and of those with the fortune and the ability to use this documentation for decoding content at multiple levels.
Abstract:This paper presents the problem concerning preservation of urban heritage by developing the concept of regeneration of historic environment and implementation of specific programmes concerning its protection and preservation. Proposed programmes, concerning protection and preservation of historic potential of the described towns will enhance the value of urban heritage, will create an opportunity to inform the public about historic aspects of the urban development, and reduce the possibility of their mistreating – and inapt attitudes towards historic sites.
Abstract:Many scholars have already underlined the importance and the complexity of the different components of the historic urban landscape. The UNESCO Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape – adopted at the General Conference on November 2011 – went beyond the notion of ‘historic centre’ and extended its application to the broader urban context and the geographical setting. Presenting the case of Caserma “Cascino” in Cagliari, the paper outlines a methodology for heritage conservation in urban contexts. The project offers a holistic approach to the conservation process. Through two main phases, it describes the employed innovative features in terms of strategies and technologies adopted for each one. The first phase focused on the understanding of the existing building complex, consisted of: a.) the historical analysis of the building, its urban context and the connection with the geographic landscape, in order to understand the cultural and social significance of the site, and b.) the documentation project to define geometry, structure, color and spatial configuration of the building, in order to determine the character defining elements and the current condition of the structure. The second phase focused on the conservation of the site, including condition repair, structural reinforcement and consolidation, and adaptive-reuse. Knowledge gained from the previous phase, in combination with issues of authenticity and reversibility, laid the groundwork for the development of the appropriate intervention strategies.
Abstract:Conservation of cultural heritage and tourism are closely related, since historic monuments and sites constitute basic resources to attract visitors. In our capacity of conservators, we have usually worked to preserve the tangible substance of heritage as a means to preserve values. But when the values may differ according to different stakeholders or interested public, among them tourists, we face new challenges related in some case to the proper use of heritage or to the proper interpretation of those values by local communities and visitors. Dedication of cultural heritage to tourism may produce benefits but also some risks if proper planning is not in place; among them the surpassing of the carrying capacity, problems with interpretation of heritage’s values and meanings and the process of gentrification. In this framework, the purpose of this paper is presenting some reflections on the relationship of cultural heritage and tourism and on the role and impact of cultural tourism on heritage conservation.
Abstract:UNESCO Convention 1972, world heritage, a powerful opportunity to promote intercultural dialogue, promoting the UNESCO Convention 2003 for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage and UNESCO Convention 2005 on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions.