Abstract:In their long history, hospitals have undergone numerous transformations, both in terms of function and organization, as well as architecture and space. At first they served as shelters for pilgrims, the homeless and the ailing poor. It was not until the turn of the 18th century and 19th century that they began to be understood as organized public institutions devoted solely to the purpose of curing the sick. At the same time, first European clinics began to emerge, which combined the didactic function of universities of medicine with the medicinal function of an ordinary hospital. Until today, there have survived the majority of 19th century European hospital buildings. Many of them still boast a clear composition of spatial structure and valuable forms of architectural detail. Development in medicine, however, has brought about an evolution in health care and consequently functional and spatial programs of hospitals have also began to change. Today, many historical European hospitals experience substantial problems connected with the adaptation to new requirements in terms of equipment necessary in modern-day medicine. Is therefore the passing of historical hospital architecture unavoidable…?
Abstract:In the following article, there are introduced some modern, environmental friendly technologies, that are being adapted in new-build and modernized office buildings in Germany. Various solutions are presented: referring to structure and construction, such as double and triple, ventilated curtain walls, cooling slabs and advanced installation systems converting sun, wind and water energy into electric current and heating power. Beside, functional schemes of several office buildings are being analyzed. Author studies the effect of these solutions on work environment and ergonomics. Moreover, there are discussed architectural design issues in the context of multi-criteria evaluation of buildings. (BREEAM, LEED, DGNB). The main part of the article, that refers to German office buildings is completed with descriptions of buildings located in Vienna.
Abstract:The urban space in today’s world has become, in many cities, “rootless” and “alienated”. “Non-places are all those spaces, which are the antithesis of home, domesticated space, well-oriented, almost temple-like, personalized, with their own history and accumulated memory. In the space of home people had names and surnames, had well-defined identities” [20, p. 10]. “Impersonal lone crowd”  in public spaces leads to a dangerous phenomenon of creation of closed-off enclaves of people who have interactions only within them and control one another. It leads to fear of new challenges, emotions, passions, social life. It also paves the way for depopulation of cities and lack of eagerness to live in them, because cities become less interesting. The phenomenon of “attractiveness of cities” and city space pertains to identity and social distinctiveness of places, friendly neighborhood, good access to communication and shopping, services, culture and recreation. This characterizes Manhattan – the New York district that never sleeps. It is vibrant with life and energy, with an infectious atmosphere, thereby rendering it one of the most attractive in the world. The emotions that it evokes forever inscribe themselves in our memory.
Abstract:The article presents the systematics of various types of geometrical surfaces in the aspects of their occurrence in Gaudi’s architecture. Basic groups of surfaces were characterized, focusing on those typical for the architect. The aim of the analysis of three-dimensional forms is the knowledge of geometrical shapes that form a work of architecture. It can facilitate the understanding of construction of the body and familiarize the concept of the project. On the basis of abovementioned systematics examples of buildings are presented, in which Gaudi used particular surfaces. Causes and results of usage of such spatial solutions in structural and aesthetic aspects are discussed. The article includes buildings designed by Gaudi in Barcelona and Colonia Guell.
Abstract:The following article concerns planning policy in Seattle, whose important element is the strategy of placemaking. Place-oriented thinking is expressed with a polycentric understanding of city space (as a sum of places), but also an organic view of all of the city’s components: architecture, history, natural and cultural environment. Development of this strategy (topics of projects, methods of projecting, public involvement) is described by an outline of the history of city planning and chosen examples of contemporary urban projects in terms of public space (parks, museums, a library).
Abstract:The study of thermal spas involves various research methodologies. It has become especially important nowadays when the latest technologies and ideas of shaping architecture, space, water and healthy lifestyle can be applied to create thermal spas. Developing modern European spas widen their offer by expanding complementary services that meet the needs of people in different age groups, who do not necessarily require rehabilitation. Examples of Austrian spas that use geothermal water in Styria and Burgenland show the effectiveness of this approach, particularly in the context of the evolution of the structure of objects in wellness and SPA types, by building multifunctional infrastructure.
Abstract:The paper presents the topic of work of modern architects, which is set in a wide historical context, which in turn allows to join cultural heritage with the present and the future. Defining the method is superior in relation to the subsequent choice of parameters. The definition itself is not sufficient to render the method of wise continuation possible to implement, detailed hints are necessary – the choice of correct parameters which can subsequently be used in the research. They are: relating to historical context (including the respect for history) and creation of frameworks for future reshaping of space – the category of time; relating the size to the neighbourhood – in terms of size and the “order of elevation” – the category of scale; relation to psychosomatic needs of the user – the category of prestige and comfort; susceptibility of space to cultural activities outside architecture, according to the rule that states that flexibility of space allows the imagination to work with free artistic creation. The Rockefeller Center is one of the greatest realizations of monumental architecture, whose construction required the efforts of a substantial and very talented group of people (architects, construction engineers and fitters, financiers etc.). It can be said that it is a work of art devoid of an artist, an example of “committee architecture”.
Abstract:The aim of the following article is to find the relation between natural and man-made shape (especially in architecture and its surroundings), which, in a more distant perspective, allows to draw up and develop measuring methods for interpretation of real forms by man and move the process onto a computer. A computer programme requires precise tasks and particular data, hence the attempt to systematize the rules, which govern shapes and their reception. The search involves both source rules, such as geometry and mathematics, but also the psychological side of reading shapes by humans. The author, referring to authorities in the field of psychology in architecture, explains the rules of perception, which, even though they concern humans, are being translated to rules that would facilitate the creation of an algorithm, which could read shapes in real space. The article is the beginning of further research of adapting the rules of human perception of outlines, edges and the course of a surface into the possibility of automatized reading of shapes by a computer.
Abstract:The article concerns the issues connected with design and implementation of new public and commercial investments in the context of existing spatial structures of highest cultural value, implemented in small towns of Tuscany. Spatial structure is understood as the state of investments, building development or even abandonment of any interference in existing landscape (also agricultural) due to human activity, shaped in latest centuries. In Tuscany, a land slightly different from other Italian regions when it comes to landscape and culture, unusual solutions in modern architecture, which cultivate the relationship with the great tradition, although it might have been designed by architects not necessarily from those parts. What, then, is the nature of this phenomenon and does it have to be necessarily connected with the “genetic” origin of modern architecture, exclusively by local creators. Presented examples contradict this view. The problem, therefore, lies in the sensitivity of an individual!!
Abstract:The article touches upon the problem of access to sports and culture centres in small communities. On the example of Icelandic experiences, solutions were put forward, which allow the use of sports- and culture complexes. Examples were discussed, which show the diversity of architectural designs, utilized in the implementation of particular buildings. The following article presents an opportunity to see how suitable shaping of functional architecture, adapted for the needs of a small community, motivates its members. In a global perspective it facilitates evasion of much pathology, which result from the stagnation of social life, and allows a development and achievement of successes for the representatives of a given nation. It is very visible on the example of Iceland, which ensures, despite difficult climatic conditions and low population density that its citizens enjoy a very high standard of living and have access to sports and culture.