Abstract:W artykule opisałem przykładowe rewitalizacje dwóch zabytkowych obiektów. Pierwszy z nich to średniowieczne mury obronne w Trzcińsku-Zdroju, drugi obiekt to unikalna twierdza górska w Srebrnej Górze. Oba obiekty dzieli znaczna odległość geograficzna oraz fakt, iż powstały w odstępie kilku wieków. Łączy je natomiast obronny charakter obu budowli oraz determinacja lokalnych społeczności w przywracaniu dawnej świetności zniszczonym obiektom – chęć tchnięcia w stare mury nowego życia. Jednym z zadań opisanych rewitalizacji jest chęć przyciągnięcia licznych grup turystów, jak również zachęcenie okolicznych mieszkańców do poznawania tajemnic oraz historii regionów, w których mieszkają. Oba obiekty łączy również fakt, iż do renowacji zabytkowych murów kamiennych oraz ceglanych zastosowano profesjonalne zaprawy murarskie, zaprawy do spoinowania oraz zaprawy do wzmacniania murów metodą iniekcji płynnych zaczynów. Wszystkie te zaprawy zostały wyprodukowane przez firmę quick-mix. Do ich produkcji wykorzystano historyczne receptury. Wyprodukowano je przy wykorzystaniu spoiw wapiennotrasowych powstałych na bazie trasu reńskiego Tubag.
Forlani, Maria Cristina, Radogna, Donatella, Viskovic, Alberto
Abstract:The paper deals with the use of wooden framed structures for the retrofitting and rebuilding of partially destroyed masonry buildings. When the damages are not so large to require a complete demolition but they are also not so localized to permit simple reparations, there is always the problem: how much to rebuild without to obtain an historic fake? The philosophy at the base of the Rehabilitation Plan for Caporciano (a municipality in the L’Aquila earthquake area) follows two different ways: a) the demolition, when the ruins envelop is less than the 30% of the original building volume and/or the masonry is too much damaged to be consolidated; b) the consolidation of the masonry and their stabilization through the collaboration with new wooden structures built inside the free spaces leaved by the collapsed roofs and floors. The choice to recover, in such a way, the survived existing structures, descend from the aim to conserve the historical heritage without rebuilding historic fake but integrating the “memory” with the “new” in an harmonic collaboration, testimonial of the necessary technological evolution for the life and environment contemporary needs satisfaction. The project deals with a new structure inside the ruined walls with two goals: the consolidation and the stabilization of the survived walls and the building of new and efficient wooden volumes, with wooden fibres thermal insulation, inside the perimeters of the masonry walls.
Grosel, Jacek, Sawicki, Wojciech, Wójcicki, Zbigniew
Abstract:The research team from the Structural Dynamics Division of Civil Engineering Institute of Wrocław University of Technology performed experimental dynamic studies of a number of historical constructions. The paper presents the most important aspects of contemporary dynamic analyses of historical structures and is a result of the team’s decadelong experience with such analyses carried out with the use of the most modern instruments and technologies. The basis of modern dynamic analysis is the use of three elements: in situ dynamic measurements, analysis of the obtained data, and calculation on a FEM model. The interrelations among the three are used to validate and update the FEM model. The methods used in dynamic analyses are very complex and difficult. Aside from them, Polish and German national standards offer simplified methods of evaluating the harmfulness of building vibrations due to ground motions. Three types of analysis methods are presented here: simple dynamic analysis, simplified approaches based on national standards and advanced techniques such as Operational Modal Analysis (OMA). The presented studies and measurements are classifi ed as non-destructive, and are therefore best suited to the analysis of historical structures and monuments. OMA merits special attention, as it yields information on modal frequencies, forms and damping. In comparison to Experimental Modal Analysis (EMA), the greatest advantage of the OMA is that no special excitation of structure vibration is required. In large structures, such excitation is diffi cult to realize and may lead to local damage, which is especially harmful in historical objects. However, OMA requires more exact and much longer measurements than Experimental Modal Analysis (EMA).
Abstract:The main room of the Valentino Castle in Torino, the “Salone delle Feste”, was conceived and realised in the XVIIth century under the guidance of Carlo di Castellamonte. The beautiful frescos and stuccoes of the domical vault are sustained by a typical Delorne carpentry, whose span is among the largest of their kind. The dome suffered from degradation during the years, and a series of interventions were put into place. Nowadays, a survey revealed that the suspender cables above the vault in the region close to the abutments have lost their tension. This may indicate an increase of the vault deformation; therefore a structural assessment of the dome is mandatory. In order to reinforce the structural hypothesis of damages and to reveal the deformation effects, a high detailed metric survey have been carried out with integrated laser scanning and digital close range photogrammetry. The photogrammetrical survey of frescos, with the re-projection of images on vault surface model (texture mapping), is purposed to exactly localize formers restoration and their signs on frescos continuity. The present paper illustrates the generation of the 3D high-resolution model and its relations with the results of the structural survey; both of them support the Finite Element numerical simulation of the dome. Finally, possible intervention techniques are mentioned, accounting for the restoration criteria of reversibility, minimum intervention, sustainability and compatibility.
Bednarz, Łukasz, Kasiedczak, Andrzej, Stachańczyk, Renata, Roscher, Astrid
Abstract:The Muskau Park is one of the most extensive 19th century landscape-style park layouts in Europe. From among the numerous landscape-style park compositions created in that period the Muskau Park stands out not only owing to its artistic values, but also because of the fact that the Park, as the consequence of World War II divided by the state border on the Lusatian Neisse river, since the 1980s has been undergoing restoration carried out by two countries: Poland and Germany, within the framework of a joint project. It is owing to the efforts of the Polish side and the German side that this park in 2004 was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List and at the same time became a symbol of the reconciliation between the nations of Poland and Germany and of the conservation collaboration in the fi eld of cultural landscape protection. Thanks to cross-border cooperation measures were taken to restore the Park’s historic compositions, including bridges to their former glory. The English Bridge and the Double Bridge, connecting the two banks of the Lusatian Neisse, and the Arcade Bridge situated on the Polish side of the Park have been subjected to conservation renovations whereby the bridges have been restored to their former glory.
Abstract:Half-timbered buildings represent an important historical heritage in many countries. They are diffused in various regions for different reasons, such as availability of materials, to lighten a structure, their low cost, the strength they offer and as a construction element able to resist seismic actions. This latter issue is the research topic analysed here, as half-timbered buildings have been specifically used in reconstruction plans as earthquake-resistant buildings in many countries, such as Portugal, Italy, and Greece. All these buildings were characterized by an internal timber skeleton constituted of vertical and horizontal elements and braced with diagonal elements (St. Andrew’s crosses). This structure aimed at improving the global stability of masonry buildings, enhancing their capacity to dissipate energy during earthquakes. The aim of this paper is to study the behaviour under cyclic loading of such half-timbered walls, with typical connections, materials and geometries encountered in existing buildings. In general, half-timbered walls act as shear walls and confer to the masonry structure a better seismic resistance than that provided by a traditional masonry wall. Cyclic tests were performed on traditional walls and their behaviour was studied in terms of ultimate capacity, deformability, energy dissipation and stiffness. Subsequently, the tested walls were retrofitted with traditional techniques in order to understand the influence of the reinforcement and to estimate its effectiveness, or lack thereof.
Abstract:The aim of this paper is to investigate the possibility of cambering a timber beam by simply putting another beam on the top of it and inserting screws inclined at 45° relative to the beam axis. To this purpose, three experimental tests have been performed at the Laboratory of the Department of Mechanical and Structural Engineering (DIMS) of the University of Trento. After the calibration of a numerical model that helped in understanding the “cambering phenomenon”, an analytical formulation has been proposed. The resulting formula for determining the upward camber (given the mechanical properties of the beams and of the fasteners) has shown the capability of reproducing the experimental behaviour with promising accuracy. However, further testing is recommended so as to validate the method feasibility to existing beams.
Abstract:The so-called “Cell Vaults”, also called “Diamond Vaults”, are a particular type of late Gothic vaults, which appeared for the first time in Saxony and became common in central and eastern Europe during the late 15th and 16th century. They can be found in such prominent buildings as the Albrechtsburg palace in Meissen (Germany) or St. Mary’s church at Gdánsk (Poland). The reason for the invention and the popularity of these vaults is usually seen in the building process, which is believed to have been an improvement respect to usual Gothic rib vaults. However, this hypothesis is diffi cult to prove, because there is no information about the building process in the sources. In any case, the understanding of the building process and the construction principles is a core issue for explaining the peculiar shape of these vaults. In the current research, attempts are made to formulate new, well-founded hypotheses on the building process and a better understanding of their construction and design principles. This is done by correlating detailed surveys and geometric analyses of vaults, comprising the curves, surfaces and especially the masonry texture, with experiments on the construction procedure and principles, which are carried out in full scale using realistic materials. Hence, one focus is the methodology, discussing possible ways to determine the design and construction principles from the existing building, searching “traces” of its making. The other is exploring the particular late mediaeval masonry technique, essentially different from the modern, in practice.
Abstract:The Kerimäki church is the world’s largest wooden Christian church and it has the most spacious interior in Finland. The church was designed by architect A. F. Granstedt; its construction took three years and was completed in 1847. The parishioners had to take part in the building process according to their income bracket. Every man between the ages of 15 and 60 was obliged to participate in the building. The Kerimäki church is 45 metres long, 42 metres wide and 27 metres high. The height of the dome is 37 metres and there are altogether 1670 metres of pews. The seating capacity is for over 3000 people, but standing room included, the church can accommodate 5000 people. According to the fl oor plan it is a short-armed double cruciform church. The church is a miracle of its own time, a masterpiece of carpentry with its pews, columns, galleries, tie-beams, arches, domes and lanterns. The church was originally intended to be built of stone, but because of its high cost the parish was allowed to build the church using timber. However, the exterior of the church imitates a stone building in many ways. The log walls of the church were clad with horizontal boards. The corner pilasters imitate stone churches, and the friezes carved with a quatrefoil motif framing the main entrance and the arched windows in the east and west gables mimic stonework. The emphasis of this paper is on the unique construction system and architecture of the church.
Abstract:Curved roof trusses made up by boards were first introduced by Philibert de l’Orme in 1561. However, de l’Orme’s invention did not succeed much until it became popular in the late 18th century. David Gilly, a civil servant in the Prussian administration of buildings, promoted the idea by a series of propagandistic publications. In the years around 1800, a considerable number of curved plank roofs were actually built, ranging up to spans of around 20 m. While the history of these roofs is fairly well known, the later development of the curved plank roof is less known. The system was severely criticized by early engineer such as Paul Joseph Ardant in the 1840ies, and scientifi c arguments were put forward against it. Nevertheless, curved plank roofs continued to be used until the late 19th century. There was even some Renaissance of the scheme in the last third of the century, probably mainly due to curved plank roofs published in well-known construction manuals such as Gustav Adolf Breymann’s. We present different curved plank roofs which are still preserved in Bavaria. They cover the time range between 1824 (Neuburg / Danube, castle) and the 1870ies (brine reservoir building on the Reichenhall-Rosenheim saltworks pipeline). A considerable number of curved plank roofs has also been preserved along the canal between the Danube and the Main (1840ies), in the context of lock attendants’ homes. The structures will be presented, compared to earlier curved plank roofs, and put into the context of contemporary technical literature.