Technical Transactions iss. 7. Fundamental Sciences iss. 1-NP

Technical Transactions iss. 7. Fundamental Sciences iss. 1-NP

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Collection items (24)


Polish physicists and the progress in physics (1870‒1920)

Wróblewski, Andrzej Kajetan
Article
2014
The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth lost independence in 1795 and was partitioned among her three powerful neighbours: Austria, Prussia and Russia. The two old Polish universities in Cracow and Lvov enjoyed relatively liberals laws in the Austrian partition. It was there that Polish physicists (Karol Olszewski, Zygmunt Wróblewski, Marian Smoluchowski, Władysław Natanson, Wojciech Rubinowicz, Czesław Białobrzeski, and others) made most important discoveries and original contributions. There was no possibility of career for Poles living in the oppressive Russian and Prussian partitions where even the use of Polish language was forbidden in schools. Thus many bright Polish students such as e.g. Kazimierz Fajans, Stefan Pieńkowski, Maria Skłodowska, and Mieczysław Wolfke, went abroad to study in foreign universities. In spite of unfavourable conditions under which they had to live and act in the period 1870‒1920, Polish scholars were not only passive recipients of new ideas in physics, but made essential contributions to several fields such as e.g. cryogenics, electromagnetism, statistical physics, relativity, radioactivity, quantum physics, and astrophysics.

The reception of logic in Poland: 1870‒1920

Woleński, Jan
Article
2014
This paper presents the reception of mathematical logic (semantics and methodology of science are entirely omitted, but the foundations of mathematics are included) in Poland in the years 1870–1920. Roughly speaking, Polish logicians, philosophers and mathematicians mainly followed Boole’s algebraic ideas in this period. Logic as shaped by works of Gottlob Frege and Bertrand Russell became known in Poland not earlier than about 1905. The foundations for the subsequent rapid development of logic in Poland in the interwar period were laid in the years 1915–1920. The rise of Polish Mathematical School and its program (the Janiszewski program) played the crucial role in this context. Further details can be found in [8]. This paper uses the material published in [20‒24].

Lucjan Emil Böttcher (1872‒1937) ‒ the Polish pioneer of holomorphic dynamics

Stawiska, Małgorzata
Article
2014
In this article I present Lucjan Emil Böttcher (1872‒1937), a little-known Polish mathematician active in Lwów. I outline his scholarly path and describe briefly his mathematical achievements. In view of later developments in holomorphic dynamics, I argue that, despite some flaws in his work, Böttcher should be regarded not only as a contributor to the area but in fact as one of its founders.

Jan Jędrzejewicz ‒ a professional among amateur astronomers

Siuda-Bochenek, Magda
Article
2014
Jan Jędrzejewicz was an eminent Polish amateur astronomer. He lived and worked as a doctor in a small town of Płońsk, situated 60 km of Warsaw. His great passion was astronomy and he devoted his all free time to it. After gaining essential knowledge, he built observatory, which he professionally equipped with his own funds. The main subject of his work was micrometer measurements of double stars, to which he applied himself with unusual precision and diligence. This was appreciated by an American astronomer S.W. Burnham, who included these results in his catalogue of double stars. Jędrzejewicz also observed the Sun, comets, planets and other sky phenomena, and the results of his works were published in the international journals: “Astronomische Nachrichten” and “Vierteljahrsschrift Astronomischen Ggesellschaft”. Noteworthy in his papers are extremely thorough investigation of the subject and a great number of references to papers of contemporaneous professional astronomers. Jędrzejewicz aroused interest of the scientific world, which was demonstrated by the fact that information about him appeared several times in the journal “Nature”.

Concepts of a number of C. Méray, E. Heine, G. Cantor, R. Dedekind and K. Weierstrass

Sinkevich, Galina I.
Article
2014
The article is devoted to the evolution of concept of a number in XVIII–XIX c. Ch. Méray’s, H. Heine’s, R. Dedekind`s, G. Cantor’s and K. Weierstrass`s constructions of a number are considered. Only original sources were used.

The notion of connectedness in mathematical analysis of XIX century

Sinkevich, Galina I.
Article
2014
The notion of connectedness was introduced by Listing in 1847 and was further developed by Riemann, Jordan and Poincaré. The notion and rigorous definition of metric and topological space were formed in Frechet’s works in 1906, and in Hausdorff’s works in 1914. The notion of continuum could be traced back to antiquity, but its mathematical definition was formed in XIX century, in the works of Cantor and Dedekind, later of Hausdorff and Riesz. Karl Weierstrass (1815–1897) brought mathematical analysis to a rigorous form; also, the notions of future areas of mathematics – functional analysis and topology – were formed in his reasoning. Weierstrass’s works were not translated into Russian, and his lectures were not published even in Germany. In 1989, synopses of his lectures devoted to additional chapters of the theory of functions were published. Their material served as the basis for this article.

On the history of logic in the Russian Empire (1850–1917)

Schumann, Andrew
Article
2014
In 1850 a very important decision for the whole history of humanities and social sciences in Russia was made by Nicholas I, the Emperor of Russia: to eliminate the teaching of philosophy in public universities in order to protect the regime from the Enlightenment ideas. Only logic and experimental psychology were permitted, but only if taught by theology professors. On the one hand, this decision caused the development of the Russian theistic philosophy enhanced by modern methodology represented by logic and psychology of that time. On the other hand, investigations in symbolic logic performed mainly at the Kazan University and the Odessa University were a bit marginal. Because of the theistic nature of general logic, from 1850 to 1917 in Russia there was a gap between philosophical and mathematical logics.

Remarks on non-Euclidean geometry in the Austro-Hungarian Empire

Munkácsy, Katalin
Article
2014
Since 1800s, Central European mathematicians have achieved great results in hyperbolic geometry. The paper is devoted to brief description of the background as well as history of these results.

History of descriptive geometry with an emphasis to the boom of descriptive geometry in Austro-Hungarian Empire in the 19th century

Moravcová, Vlasta
Article
2014
The article shows the development of projection in the Antiquity, the origin of perspective in Renaissance and the development of orthogonal projection from the 16th up to the 18th century before descriptive geometry as a separate discipline of studies was established by Gaspard Monge. Furthermore, the paper presents the expansion of descriptive geometry through Europe in the 19th century with the emphasis on its bloom in the second half of the 19th century in Cisleithania.

Chemical ideas and the development of chemical and petroleum industry on the Polish territory since 1850 to 1920

Mierzecki, Roman
Article
2014
The information about: 1) the liquefaction of oxygen and nitrogen in 1883 in Kraków, 2) the formulation in Lwow of the hypothesis of vegetal origin of crude oil, 3) the discovery of chromatography in 1903 in Warsaw, is given. The situation of chemical industry in the three parts of Poland partitioned among Russia, Germany and Austria is reported. A special attention is paid to the activity of Ignacy Łukasiewicz, who received for the first time in the world the kerosene from the crude oil, constructed and lighted in Lwow pharmacy in March 1853 the kerosene lamp. In 1854 he excavated petroleum shaft in Bóbrka and in 1856 he built a petroleum refinery in Ulaszowice near Jasło, getting ahead of USA, where the first petroleum refinery at Oil Creek was built five years later, in 1861.