Abstract:The ideas of taylorism and fordism reflected also in rapidly developing European countries. In England, Netherlands and Germany emerged a heated debate regarding the relationship between architecture, art and technique in terms of its enhancement, and consequently- of housing popularisation. What was also taken into consideration was the conviction that by creating more architectural patterns and forms it will be possible to propagate new cultural values. The German housing thought (together with the Dutch one) began to evolve the fastest in the world. Designation the ways of popularising housing was partaken among the academic society (Bauhaus) as well as professional field (German Craftsmen Association – Deutscher Werkbund). The new aesthetic (called avant-garde) was based on the dialectic of the architectural eclecticism from the late 19th century and art nouveau (Jugendstil) from the early 20th century (P. Behrens, W. Gropius, M. van der Rohe). It was also a consequence of the new methods of construction and technologies fascination (mostly the concrete poured in formwork). All of this resulted in the crystallisation of the basic ideas behind the Modern Movement in architecture, predominantly in forming housing structures based on concrete „material”.
Abstract:This thesis concerns the influence of the avant-garde art on the change of architectural form in the twentieth and twenty-first century. The art of the Great Avant-Garde was characterized by formal experimentation and innovation. Technological development has enabled modern architects to realize buildings of spectacular, sculptural shapes. The architectural form has become independent from the function of the building. Contemporary architects draw inspiration from the works of the first avant-garde; Futurism, Constructivism, and Expressionism. Tendencies in architecture which refer to avant-garde movements can be defined as post-avantgarde architecture.
Abstract:This article deals with issues related to the possibilities of using concrete in designing objects intended for the youngest.
In the first part of the article, the author analyzes the reasons for the negative attitude towards this building material, which can be observed among Polish investors. Then, he tries to find the right place for concrete in the architecture designed for the youngest, with particular emphasis on playgrounds and courtyards.
Abstract:Why is Japanese concrete architecture so renowned worldwide? Why do Ryue Nishizawa, Tadao Ando, Toyo Ito, Takeshi Hosaka, Kazumi Kudo and Hiroshi Horiba, the world’s most innovative and influential architects, use concrete? Why does religion have such a strong influence on Japanese architecture? Can local culture influence concrete transmutation? Beauty is often in the eye of the beholder. To some, massive concrete Japanese architecture may appear brutal, to others it could be a symbol of strength and solidarity.
Abstract:Le Corbusier instilled in designers the desire to search for system solutions that work in a wide range of applications. An ideology that did not relate to obtaining a particular substance was born, but it gave rise to a variety of meanings. Its base is a concrete structure. Time and money often have a decisive influence on the quality of the objects being constructed. Contemporary architectural works aim for minimalism, functionality and economy of realization. Once again, beauty in the skeleton of the building is seen, which is both useful and durable. Aesthetics is focused on the precision of workmanship as well as material optimization. Any deviation from the flagship assumption leads to an investment in uncertain land. However, it is the transmutation that seems to be the stimulus for the artistic element of the city’s integrated works, such as the expansion of the Tate Modern Museum of Art in London.
Abstract:The Bunker of Art is one of the first modern buildings within the Cracow Market. Its façade is reminiscent of the military buildings of World War II . These military aesthetics were suitable for the museum of modern art, and by its raw neutrality, it created new aesthetics that matched the function of the building and were not aggressive to its surroundings. The concrete bas-relief created by the architect along with the sculptors has become a symbol of the Cracovian Planty Park and a curiosity not only for professionals. The building refers to military buildings, and it comes as if from a ready-made art trend, which can give it the status of a work of art. Also, its name changes the conventional approach to an art gallery and completes the whole picture. The cooperation of the architect and the sculptor working together with the material creates an unforgettable whole that does not allow the viewer to pass indifferently.
Abstract:The oldest vestige of concrete application has been found in the Galilee village Yiftah El, which dates back to 7000 BC. Its prevalence as a building material appeared several centuries later in ancient Rome, from which come great buildings like the Pantheon or Coloseum, existing for hundreds of years without the need for complex repairs. Vitruvius did not fail to mention its excellent characteristics in his famous treaty. Concrete is, however, generally considered as a material of modern civilization, very “trendy” both in architecture as well as in interior design. The aim of the article is to overview the concrete’s technology used by the ancient Romans, famous for its resistance and compactness. The author analyses the process of its production, paying attention to the aspect of ecology, multi – century life and compares its features with the characteristics of modern building materials.
Abstract:In this essay, the issue of conversion of concrete in architecture will be presented. It will show different methods of treating concrete and determine elements allowing the conversion from a seemingly common material into the perfect thing. The Masters, who have met the challenge of converting concrete, will be presented, along with the characteristic features defining their approach to the subject. The issue of esthetics and utility of the objects of contemporary concrete architecture and its relation to its surroundings as well as its overall reception.
Abstract:Standing in opposition to the stripped of originality art of modernism, the brutalist architecture rejected the metaphor to give it an individual character by combining scaled, sculpted forms with the use of raw concrete. The text shows the transformation of concrete in the aesthetic dimension, presenting the image of “brutal” architecture as a negation of perception of concrete as a building block and giving it beyond practical functionalism, namely expression. The author, based on examples of brutalistic architecture, shows the process of concrete evolution from being raw material to masterpiece, from component to entirety.
Abstract:Beauty relates to what has been formed, shaped, and not to an architectural building. The form itself is not yet an architectural building, but only that which is aesthetic. Assuming that the form has been created, the creator is at the verge of that which is formed on the one hand, and an architectural building on the other. The act of giving meaning to form will be called transmutation. Many transmutations make up a dwelling. The more sensitive we are in transmuting the matter of which the form is built, the more we dwell.