Abstract:The concrete repeats the natural process of stone formation, thousands of years summarized in days. Transfers of surface images, such as fossils, are instantaneous; stone and concrete become a means that translates to the future the images of a place and a past time.
The sculptor Eduardo Chillida has contributed to the transmutation and transfer of concrete.
Abstract:This paper deals with the role of concrete in enabling certain aesthetic expressions of Modern architecture, specifically those of bareness, exposure, clarity of form and truth to materials. It first looks at the contemporaneous designs of the bikini and the modernist rediscovery of architecture, revealing both as part of a cultural moment fixated on the body and exposure. It then moves to Israel of the 1960s to look at the ways in which Alfred Neumann and Zvi Hecker’s colored concrete sought to enhance the overall form and highlight its ‘exposed’ state, much like the way sun-tanning emphasized the exposed state of skin by, paradoxically, changing its surface. Ultimately, I argue that the Modern Movement’s fixation on the exposed architectural body was given form and expression in concrete.
Abstract:The article presents students’ conceptual projects of public utility buildings created in the last few years within the framework of semester and diploma courses at the Institute of Architecture and Urban Planning, which are in their avant-garde vision of the continuation of the achievements of the architecture of inter-war Łódź. At the same time, they contain innovative, often ecological, material, functional and formal solutions in line with the modern guidelines for the shaping of public space in Poland. The projects concern the full expression of public facilities located in the conditions of the big city of Piotrkowska Street, which as a historical passage called „Piotrkowski Passage” is now undergoing comprehensive transmutation.
Abstract:The invention of modern concrete adjoins at the timeline with the discoveries of modern geometry. Multidimensional, non-Euclidean spaces, and, above all, topology, drew the attention of artists and architects. New mathematics inspired artworks and aesthetics of the early twentieth century. Its influence is seen in post-war modernism, postmodernism and in the latest art movements.
The realization of topology-inspired buildings requires a highly plastic medium. Curvilinear surfaces resist manipulation with tools both on the drawing board and on the construction site. They require approximation, division into simpler elements, and a material that assumes a complex shape and will sustain it in a lasting way.
The article focuses on the importance of concrete for modern architecture inspired by the topology. It starts at the moment when architects of the modern movement, including LeCorbusier, F. L. Wright, used new inspirations. Marking the characteristic phenomena in the works of Eero Saarinen, JørnUtzon, Frei Otto, ArseniuszRomanowicz, Oscar Niemeyer, and Santiago Calatrava continues it. It ends with a reflection on the importance of digital techniques in the implementation of topologically inspired buildings made of concrete.
Abstract:The monumental form of the Olympic Stadium rises in the heart of Phnom Penh (1964). As one of the examples of new khmer architecture, the stadium combines the concepts of European modern movement with the vernacular architecture of Cambodia. It has become a symbol of the brief dynamic period of searching for Cambodian identity in the years between obtaining colonial independence from France and the destructive rule of Pol Pot.
Abstract:In sacral projects, architects use various materials to express sacrumthrough light and form. Nowadays, there is asacralisation of concrete, which has become a symbolic building material in modern spaces of numinosum– a mysterious, sacral power, which fills one with fear and terror, and simultaneously attracts and enslaves you.
The development of new materials broadens creative possibilities while simultaneously avoiding the replacement of older, tried and tested materials. A revolution in architecture, and not only sacral, was the development of ferro-concrete by a French gardener, Joseph Monier, in 1867;however, only in 1892 did the French constructor, Francois Hennebique, patent a method for erecting unitary, skeletous ferro-concrete structures. The ease of receiving various spatial forms makes ferro-concrete a material commonly used by creators of sacral architecture. In the history of sacral architecture, the first buildingto possess all logical properties and consequently, to use a ferro-concrete structure, built in 1894–1904 by the architect and monuments conservator Antale Baodonat [1834–1915], was theChurch of St. Jean in Montmartre, Paris. Concrete, primarily used to replace structural materials such as brick and stone, also made it possible torealise the guidelines of the Second Vatican Council on renewed liturgical space. However, only the works of Le Corbusier fullysacraliseconcrete, which thus becomes the new symbolic stone – material, which is simple and lasting. Le Corbusier, despite his agnostic worldview, designed three sacral buildings: Notre Dame du Haut Ronchamp chapel, built in 1953–1955; monastery of Dominican friars in La Tourette, built in 1956–1960; and church in Firminy, finished afterthe author’s death. Interiors of all these buildings are a studyof light, form, and matter. Despite the passage of time, the three buildings became a guidepost for many modern architects.
The article is an attempt at answering the question of what influence on shaping modern sacral interiors did the development of ferro-concrete havein relation to the role of light and matter. The paper analysesthe works of modern architecture in which concrete and lightare a particular narrational medium.
Abstract:In the 20th century in Mexico, concrete became a very popular material due to many economic, technological, artistic, and aesthetic reasons.
The Mexican architect T. González de León was called a poet of concrete. He himself, or in collaboration with other architects, created numerous monumental buildings. Among the characteristic features of his most famous realizations are minimalist forms made of concrete. Since the 1960s, he experimented with the structure and texture of concrete wall surfaces, looking for the right mixtures of aggregate and subjecting concrete to mechanical or manual treatment. He became an architect whose concrete structures were raised to the rank of a work of art.
Also, other architects, especially in the 1970s, used the visual qualities of concrete in their projects. This method of using concrete became one of the features of modern Mexican architecture.
Abstract:A number of buildings were completed in Krakow c. 1965: the Kijow cinema, the concert shell in Wola Justowska, Lupinka at the Cracow University of Technology, the BWA exhibition pavilion. In 1967, the construction of the Lord’s Ark church in Bienczyce started to last for nearly a decade. They were the first such significant Krakow manifestations of architectural form expression offered by the use of concrete. A review of Krakow architecture since the late 1950s until the present has been presented in the paper, taking into consideration the impact of selected material, i.e. concrete upon the achieved architectural form. Three groups of works have been distinguished as reflecting the “transmutation” degree. A number of cases have been discussed in the context of the leading subject: apart from the quoted ones, the churches in Wzgorza Krzeslawickie, in the former Airport, in Krowodrza and Bronowice Nowe districts, the Resurrectionist Seminar, the Museum of Polish Aviation; a number of other works have been mentioned, too. The structural and formal problems have been discussed as well as the protection of the works as being part of cultural heritage.
Abstract:The transformation of concrete is connected with the new image of the material, associated with modernity and severity. Architectural concrete gives the form a timeless dimension that is not limited by the detail of a specific canon or brieffashion. The simplicity and elegance of the concrete are its greatest assets, which perfectly emphasise the shape, character and monumentality of an architectural object. Due to its solemnity, concrete triggers a strong visual impression, often perceived as durability and stability. A slightly different nature of the material is gained with the use of photovoltaic technology. It creates unlimited possibilities for depicting motifs, ornaments and graphics on the surface of the material. Though it still amazes with its austerity, concrete transforms into a painting, a plane reproducing a product, sometimes a work of art. We may discuss whether the effect of these activities lessens the impression that pure concrete – devoid of detail – so perfect in its form provides. However, on the other hand, the new look of this material is not only limited to photoconcrete technology. It is one of the possibilities that can accompany concrete. Used rationally, they often provide a visually attractive effect – a new dimension of the material. The aim of this article is to indicate the additional possibilities that photoconcrete creates and the analysis of selected examples.
Abstract:The architecture of the Magic Space is a kind of poetry of the art of shaping space close to the art of surrealism and the architecture of post-functionalism. This is a category close to the idea of “architectural pretexts” as a theory of design process. It is also a place for the poetics of the transmutation of concrete.